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History of gyroscopes

12th Sept 1743 "Serson's Speculum" sextant was first tested. Basically this is a spinning to top that has a flat mirror like surface on the top. It was designed to be used at sea in foggy or misty conditions. By looking through the line of sight through a quadrant at the reflected image of the sun in the mirror (Seron's speculum) and aligning this with the direct light of the sun, a angle can be taken. Halving this angle gives the true horizon (even if the horizon cannot be seen). The idea is that the Seron's speculum (spinning top) can be aligned with the horizon.
1754 Details of "Serson's Speculum" are published in "The Gentleman's Magazine" 1754 Vol 24 p. 446-448.
1817 Johann Bohnenberger (at the University of Tubingen) 'discovered' the gyroscope (gyroscope name was coined in 1852).
1831 Professor Walter R. Johnson of the University of Pennsylvania exhibited a "Rotascope".
1836 Scotsman Mr. Edward Sang suggested an experiment using a device like a gyroscope to the Royal Scottish Society of Arts.
1852 The French scientist Jean Bernard Leon Foucault (1826-64) first used the name gyroscope. Conducted many experiments with gyroscopes and was credited with the invention of the gyroscope.
1852-1968 A new style of demonstration gyroscope is created that uses gravitational torque to get a gyroscope to rotate around a centre base. The design was created by Julius Plücker 1801-1868 and Friedrich Fessel 1821- ca. 1860.
1898 Original patent of an Austrian engineer M. Obry was finialized after being sold to Whitehead Torpedo Works Fiume.
1904 H. Anschütz-Kaempfe patented a ships gyrocompass on 26th March 1904, based on work from 1901.
17th July 1906 Gyrostabilizer experiments carried out by Herr Otto Schlick on the "Sea-bar" torpedo-boat.
1908 First working ships gyrocompass was developed by H. Anschütz-Kaempfe
1908 First apparatus for steadying a ship in England was installed in October, 1908 to R.M.S Lochiel. Construction was carried out at the Neptune Works of Swan, Hunter And Wigham Richardson (Newcastle).
1909 Elmer A. Sperry built the first automatic pilot for aircraft using gyroscopes.
1911 Elmer A. Sperry started selling gyrocompasses in US and later in Britain.
1915 Sperry Company (Elmer A. Sperry) installed the first Sperry gyrostabilizer to stop roll on ships.
1916 The Anschütz Company completed and installed the first automatic pilot for a ship.
1916 First artificial horizon in aircraft used.
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